Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup E-M215, also referred to in the literature by other names such as E1b1b and E3b (see further discussion below), is a major Y chromosome haplogroup. It is a division of the macro haplogroup E-M96, which is defined by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation M215. In other words, it is one of the major patrilineal lineages of humanity, linking from father-to-son back to a common male-line ancestor ("Y-chromosomal Adam"). It is a subject of discussion and study in genetics as well as genetic genealogy, archaeology, and historical linguistics.
E-M215 has two ancient branches that contain all known modern E-M215, E-M35 and E-M281 subclades. Of the latter two, the only branch that has been confirmed in a native population outside of Ethiopia is E-M35. E-M35 in turn has two known branches, haplogroup E-V68 and haplogroup E-Z827, which contain by far the majority of all modern E-M215 men. E-V68 and E-V257 have been found in highest numbers in North Africa and the Horn of Africa, but also in lower numbers in parts of the Middle East and Europe, and in isolated populations of Southern Africa.
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