Josephine Baker (3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an American-born French dancer, jazz and pop music singer, and actress, who came to be known in various circles as the "Black Pearl," "Bronze Venus" "Jazz Cleopatra", and even the "Creole Goddess". Born Freda Josephine McDonald in St. Louis, Missouri, Baker became a citizen of France in 1937. She was fluent in both English and French.
Baker was the first black woman to star in a major motion picture, Zouzou (1934), and to become a world-famous entertainer. Baker refused to perform for segregated audiences in the United States and is noted for her contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1968 she was offered unofficial leadership in the movement in the United States by Coretta Scott King, following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination. Baker turned down the offer. She was also known for assisting the French Resistance during World War II, and received the French military honor, the Croix de guerre and was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by General Charles de Gaulle.
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